Stomach - muscular, elastic, pear-shaped bag that is located between the esophagus and the intestines, beneath the diaphragm.
It changes size and shape according to is position of the body and the amount of food inside.
Entrance of Food
Food enters the stomach from the esophagus. The connection
between the stomach and the esophagus is called the cardiac sphincter.
The cardiac sphincter prevents food from passing back to the esophagus.
Stomach and Heart Burn
Heart burn is the sensation
when stomach juices (gastric juice) is allowed to seep through the sphincter into the esophagus.
Once the food enters the stomach, gastric juices are used to break down the food. Some substances are absorbed muscle lining of the stomach.
One of the substances the stomach absorbs is alcohol.
The other end of the stomach empties into the duodenum
(first section of small intestine.)
The pyloric sphincter separates the stomach from the duodenum.
The stomach is composed of five layers. Starting from the inside and working our way out
- Mucosa (the innermost layer responsible for making stomach acid
and digestive juices
- Submucosa (surrounded by a layer of muscle that moves and mixes the stomach contents)
- Subserosa (wrapping for the stomach)
- Serosa (wrapping for the stomach)
- Serosa (outermost layer)
Illness and Problems Associated With the Stomach
- Gastroesophageal Reflux - condition when the stomach contents, including acid, travel back up the esophagus.
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) - a condition of Gastroesophageal Reflux symptoms becoming more severe, painful, or damaging.
- Dyspepsia - upset stomach or indigestion.
- Gastric or Stomach ulcer - erosion of the lining of the stomach, often causing pain and/or bleeding.
- Peptic Ulcer - ulcers in either the stomach or the duodenum.
- Gastritis - stomach inflammation, often causing nausea and/or pain.
- Stomach cancer - gastric cancer (adenocarcinoma and lymphoma).
- Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) - tumors that secrete hormones that lead to increased acid production.
- Gastric varices - common in severe liver disease patients. A condition where veins in the stomach may swell and bulge under increased pressure.
- Stomach bleeding - gastritis, ulcers, or gastric cancers that bleed.
- Gastroparesis - Nerve damage that may impair the stomach's muscle contractions.