Insulin - hormone regulating the energy and glucose metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle.

How Insulin Works

Insulin stops the use of fat as an energy source. When insulin is low or absent, glucose is not taken up by body cells, and the body begins to use fat as an energy source. The level of insulin is a central metabolic control mechanism. its status is also used as a control signal to other body systems . In addition, it has several other effects throughout the body such as vascular compliance and cognition. Once insulin enters the human brain, it enhances learning and memory.

Low Insulin and Type 1 Diabetes

When control of insulin levels fails, diabetes mellitus will result. Consequently insulin is used medically to treat some forms of diabetes mellitus. Patients with Type 1 diabetes depend on external insulin (most commonly injected subcutaneously) for their survival because the hormone is no longer produced internally.

Insulin and Type 2 Diabetes

Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus are insulin resistant, and may suffer from a relative insulin deficiency, and sometimes may require insulin if other medications fail to control blood glucose levels.

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